He is an active member of several professional organizations including the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners www. No case is too large or small. If you would like to discuss your case with us at no charge please feel free contact us at or DREXlab — When it comes to conducting a thorough investigation, examining all the pieces of the puzzle are key to producing a clear history of the unknown. From the largest piece of evidence to the smallest, the examiner needs to be precise, cautious, independent and patient in viewing all of the evidence in the case. Through the careful examination of document evidence results can generate answers to questions about weather the document is genuine or a fraud. And when hiring a reputable outside company to perform forensic analysis of questioned documents, one must be careful to hire a company that can if necessary qualify in court as an Expert Witness providing subsequent testimony to laboratory findings.
Dating of Documents
Emily J. Forensic Document Examiner. Albuquerque, NM.
Linda Mitchell is a Certified Forensic Document Examiner (QDE) with offices in San Ms. Mitchell enjoys complex cases and medical malpractice matters. a working knowledge of up-to-date laboratory procedures and graphic presentations.
During his career, Brunelle published approximately 50 scientific publications, including a textbook on the Forensic Examination of Ink and Paper, a chapter in a Handbook of Forensic Sciences, and a chapter in an Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences. He was the recipient of the John A. Dondero Memorial Award, presented to him by the International Association for Identification for developing the first capability in the United States for dating inks.
This was the first professional association in the world for forensic ink chemists. Kenneth R. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we’ll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer – no Kindle device required. The use of the forensic examination and dating of inks on questioned documents has become common, and law enforcement agencies rely heavily on these techniques during criminal investigations whenever there is some question as to when a document was written.
In this book, the authors describe the many advances that have occurred in the field of forensic examination and dating of inks on documents. Actual laboratory procedures for examining and dating inks and other related substances are described, as well as the forensic applications of these techniques in criminal and civil litigations. In addition, the authors provide discussion theories for each type of chemical analysis which serve as useful guidelines for explaining the science to lay juries.
This book will be useful to chemists involved in dating examination work, lawyers trying cases using these techniques, and professors teaching in the field of forensic sciences. In addition, it will be useful serving as a methods manual and reference text for forensic science students.
Steven G Drexler is a retired Handwriting Expert and Questioned Document Examiner If you would like to discuss your case with us at no charge please feel free identification of indented writings, original vs. copy and document dating.
Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.
Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written. When conducting examinations, forensic document examiners must have known specimens to which they compare the material in question. These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine.
In cases involving handwriting, samples are usually divided into two types: requested writing specimens and collected writing specimens. Requested specimens are writings dictated by the investigator to the writer. These specimens are created under carefully controlled conditions, with the writer being closely monitored. Collected writing specimens, however, are writings that were completed by the subject prior to the investigation.
Good sources of writing specimens may include items such as cancelled checks, letters, diaries, signed receipts, medical records, real estate contracts, tax records or other signed legal documents. Membership requirements for these associations vary; however, an examiner typically must have completed a two-year, full-time training program under the guidance of a qualified forensic document examiner.
Questioned document examination
Correspondence Address : Bing Li No. The domain of forensic document examination consists of a variety of professional tasks related to the history and preliminary of questioned documents. The wide area of tasks implemented by forensic document examiners includes the skill to identify the authorship of handwriting and signature; discriminate among genuine, imitated, or disguised handwriting; to examine and analyze components of inks, papers, and other materials connected with documents; and other highly skilled analyses based on specialized technique.
The field of handwriting examination is tightly related to empirical knowledge and practical experience. Handwriting is usually thought to be behavioral activities that are identifiable due to the appearance of features and characteristics within the writing.
In these cases, significant dating errors occur because the type of paper used and the mass/quantity of the ink deposited influence the analysis.
Our Practice is the longest established private independent laboratory in Great Britain dealing with the examination of questioned documents. For more than five decades, the laboratory has had an international reputation and regularly receives instructions from all over the world. The laboratory has two document examiners who primarily undertake privately funded casework. Reports are prepared for a variety of courts, both Civil and Criminal in the UK and abroad.
On occasions, Ellen Radley also undertakes Legally Aided matters, caseload permitting. We routinely receive instructions to act a Single Joint Expert and are fully aware of the obligations and requirements under Part 35 of the CPR. We also assess reports of other experts, commenting, supplementing and, if necessary, criticising the same so that instructing clients can fully appreciate the significance of the evidence presented.
For a number of practical and ethical reasons, instruction is not taken from private individuals, only from members of the legal profession, law enforcement agencies, banks, companies etc. Instruction For a number of practical and ethical reasons, instruction is not taken from private individuals, only from members of the legal profession, law enforcement agencies, banks, companies etc.
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PAPER FORENSICS & AGE DATING
Forensic document examiners are an essential part of the success of the forensic science community. Their main responsibility is examining written, typed, or printed documents using a scientific methodology and equipment. Their essential responsibilities go beyond evaluating different documents. They prepare demonstrative exhibits, write expert reports, and state their opinions regarding the documents which are being analyzed.
This means they testify in court proceedings if the case goes to trial. Forensic document examiners can be found in local, state, and federal crime laboratories.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents. Estimate of likely costs; Initial brief discussion of the case with potential.
A signature analysis is the most common type of request a document examiner receives. It is understandable, considering the numerous contractual agreements, wills, checks, and other documents signed on a daily basis. If you have a court case, a workplace issue, or a personal reason to have a signature verification, I would welcome your call to discuss the matter. Procedures are consistent for a document examiner, regardless of the document type or assets at issue.
Original documents are preferable to work with, particularly the one s at issue. If it is not available, the best copy should be submitted. As you may suspect, several known signatures are needed for the signature analysis process. Consider your own signatures; they vary in their appearance from one signature to another.
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Whether such tags occur in ballpoint pens available generally in Australia is not known. It is possible to determine, as an estimate, the relative age of inks of the same formula when they have been written on the same type of paper and held under the same storage conditions. This method can be useful only when the inks are still drying up to six years but more likely one to two years as solubility changes cease once ink has completely dried.
Additionally, as resins in inks harden, which begins on deposit, their solubility diminishes and importantly they trap colourants. The laboratory has two document examiners who primarily undertake privately funded casework. Reports are prepared for a variety of courts, both Civil and Criminal in the UK and abroad.
Signatures, Handwriting and the General Forensic Examination of Documents erasures and obliterations; Determination of sequence of writings; Dating of documents Estimate of likely costs; Initial brief discussion of the case with potential.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper. Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type.
Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers. The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time.
Other aspects of documents relating to defects in features such on printed or typewritten document, the presence of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints etc may also yield valuable information concerning the dating of the document. Handwriting and signatures may change with time and if reasonable volumes of comparison documentation over a period of time from the same individual can be obtained, the quality of writing or writing style may be identifiable to a particular time period.
The relative dating of documents or entries on documents can also be undertaken utilising such techniques as ESDA or by examination of offset ink transfers caused by writing a document resting on top of a “wet” transferable ink. Home Dating of Documents. Dating of Documents Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc.
Wills, endorsements on checks, letters, credit card applications or sales invoices, bank documents and even scribbled notations are just a few of the types of documents in which the identification of the author of the writing thereon may prove to be of value. Forensic document examination, questioned documents, handwriting questions, handwriting identification and questions regarding fraud or forgery are addressed. On many occasions it is possible for the document examiner to state with no reservations that a particular individual did or did not write a specific written entry.
On other occasions, because of the limited or general nature of the questioned writing, the lack of a sufficient amount of known specimen writing, disguise in the questioned or known writing, or other reasons, it may not be possible to state the results with complete certitude but a qualified opinion may be expressed.
However, forensic document examiners bring a new perspective to the work. My experiences during The Oath of a Freeman case led to my learning writing must be compared against samples of his writing dating from the same time period.
The uk. Find a. China university of dating. Wills, many forensic methods for document examination. Find scientific evidence science, with a forensic science discipline in ink dating: a key area in my area! These are aware that forensic scientists have known conditions, handwriting analysis handwriting analysis: applications and written communication skills including visual and date?
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Document dating in forensic science
Apart from the microscopic examination and the use of optical methods to examine various items exhibits that may reveal evidence about the document source or whether or not a nexus exits between various documents, there may be a need to chemically analyse the materials used in the document production. This may involve analysis of the substrate paper, film, etc.
With these types of analyses the inorganic and organic components of the substances can be determined and the results can be compared to various data bases that can assist in determining the type and who manufactured the material used. SDS is routinely involved in writing Ink and Paper analysis and has been involved in many cases where this evidence has been beneficial. Writing inks: The analysis of the writing inks used on a document can produce useful information such as; type of ink used and who manufactured that ink, how many different types of inks have been used, have ink entries on a document been altered, added or substituted, could certain entries be written contemporaneously or at different times and when could the document have been signed or written?
Box Evidential strength in a handwriting case (Likelihood Ratio paradigm). Association of Forensic Document Examiners. No date. Code of Ethics.
Wills, endorsements on checks, letters, credit card applications or sales invoices, bank documents and even scribbled notations are just a few of the types of documents in which the identification of the author of the writing thereon may prove to be of value. Forensic document examination, questioned documents, handwriting questions, handwriting identification and questions regarding fraud or forgery are addressed.
On many occasions it is possible for the document examiner to state with no reservations that a particular individual did or did not write a specific written entry. On other occasions, because of the limited or general nature of the questioned writing, the lack of a sufficient amount of known specimen writing, disguise in the questioned or known writing, or other reasons, it may not be possible to state the results with complete certitude but a qualified opinion may be expressed.
Depending on the weight of other evidence in the case, these qualified opinions may still be of value in subsequent decisions or prosecutions. The following is offered as the types of opinions that may be expressed by document examiners in handwriting cases, which for the purpose of this discussion, include handprinting cases:. This is the highest degree of confidence expressed by document examiners in handwriting comparisons.
The examiner has no reservations whatsoever, and he is certain, based on the evidence contained in the handwriting, that the known writer actually wrote the writing in question.
What is a Forensic Document Examiner
The expert witnesses in this section are available to give advice on Forensic Document Examination. They may consult on forgeries, paper comparisons, altered documents, and writing impressions. These experts can also provide reports on signature verification, writer identification, anonymous writings, and paper comparisons.
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Speckin Forensic Laboratories has been in business since assisting attorneys and others in their cases involving documents, inks, crime scenes, computer data recovery, DNA, handwriting, fingerprints, and other forensic issues. We have developed a newsletter that is designed to increase awareness in the scope of work performed at our laboratory, the type of cases we may be able to assist with, and the outcome of notable cases and trials we have been involved in. We anticipate publishing this newsletter at least twice a year in the future.
It is our hope that this newsletter will not only assist many in determining cases that forensics may provide insight in litigation but also will be re-distributed and emailed to many others that may not be familiar with our firm. We employ three document examiners, one fingerprint examiner, a forensic ink dating chemist , a DNA consultant , a trace evidence and impression evidence examiner , two computer forensic examiners as well as support staff.
We occupy 6, square feet of professional office space where our state-of-the-art instruments are located.